An electronic device known as an analogue to digital converter (ADC) transforms continuous time-varying analogue signals into discrete-time digital signals so digital devices can easily read them. In control systems, data computing, data transfer, and information processing, ADC transform the physical quantities of a real-world occurrence into a digital language. It can be used in a variety of electronic tasks.
What is ADC?
An Analog Digital Converter (ADC) is a handy function which transforms an analogue voltage on a pin into a digital value. We can start using electronics to interface with the analogue world around us by switching from the analogue to the digital realm.
A microcontroller's pins may not all be capable of performing analogue to digital conversions. These pins (A0 through A5) on the Arduino board have an "A" before their label to indicate they can read analogue voltages.
ADCs on microcontrollers might differ significantly. Since the Arduino's ADC is a 10-bit ADC, it can recognise 1,024 (210) discrete analogue levels. Microcontrollers can feature 8-bit or 16-bit ADCs (28 = 256 discrete levels and 216 = 65,536 discrete levels, respectively).
An ADC operates in a somewhat complicated manner. There are a few alternative ways to accomplish this (see Wikipedia for a list). Still, the most popular method involves charging an internal capacitor with analogue voltage and timing the time it takes for the capacitor to discharge across an internal resistor. The microprocessor keeps track of how many clock cycles are completed before the capacitor discharges. The number of cycles is the amount returned once the ADC has finished running.
Digital to Analog Converter Introduction
Transducers are frequently employed to convert the analogue input variables into currents or voltages. The digital numbers used here are binary, or "0" and "1." The 'off' state is represented by the '0', and the 'on' form is shown by the '1'. As a result, an ADC transforms all analogue data into digital binary values. For instance, suppose we had to install an alarm in our home or at a facility that would go off in the event of a fire or an overheating situation. Our entire alarm system will be electronic; however, the temperature sensor will produce analogue data after measuring the temperature. We must therefore employ an analogue to digital converter to translate the temperature's fluctuating readings into discrete or digital values.
Microcontrollers can recognise binary signals, such as whether a button is pressed or not. These transmissions are digital. When powered by five volts, a microcontroller interprets zero volts (0V) as a binary 0 and five volts (5V) as a binary 1. However, the reality is not that black and white frequently employ grey areas. What happens if the voltage is 2.72V? Which is it—a one or a zero? We often need to measure varying signals, sometimes known as analogue signals. A 5V analogue sensor can produce anything between 0.001 and 4.99 volts. Fortunately, almost all microcontrollers come with a component that enables us to transform these voltages into values that can be input into a programme to make decisions.